1 Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance, A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance.
2 Hearing: Antibiotic Resistance and the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture, Subcommittee on Health, Energy and Commerce Committee, US. House of Representatives, July 12, 2010.
3 Roberts, R.R., et al. 2009. Hospital and Societal Costs of Antimicrobial-Resistant Infections in a Chicago Teaching Hospital: Implications for Antibiotic Stewardship. Clinical Infectious Diseases 49:1175–84.
4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), NARMS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Antibiotic Resistance— Which antibiotics used in food-producing animals are related to antibiotics used in humans? (Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005, accessed July 15, 2010).
5 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2010. 2009 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals. The total listed in this document is 28.7 million pounds, but 8.2 million pounds of the drugs listed are ionophores and are not used in human medicine.
6 FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), October, 2008. ―Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S.‖ Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/ff15bugs.html.
7 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). 2004. Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic Discovery Stagnates…a Public Health Crisis Brews.
8 WebMD, ―Understanding MRSA.
11 United States General Accounting Office, Antibiotic Resistance: Federal Agencies Need to Better Focus Efforts to Address Risk to Humans from Antibiotic Use in Animals (Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 2004). See also: David G. White, et al., ―The Isolation of Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella from Retail Ground Meats,‖ New England Journal of Medicine 345, no. 16 (2001): 1147-1154; Kare Molbak et al.., ―An Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant, Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhimurium DT104,‖ New England Journal of Medicine 341, no. 19 (1999): 1420-1425; and James R. Johnson et al., ― Similarity between Human and Chicken Escherichia coli Isolates in Relation to Ciprofloxacin Resistance Status,‖ Journal of Infectious Diseases 194, no. 1 (2006): 71-78.
12 Ibid. See also: Joanne C. Chee-Sanford et al., ―Occurrence and Diversity of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Underlying Tow Swing Production Facilities, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, no. 4 (2001): 1494–1502; Amy R. Sapotka et al., ―Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation,‖ Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 7 (2001): 1041–1045; and Shawn G. Gibbs et al., ―Isolation of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from the Air Plume Downwind of a Swine Confined or Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation,‖ Environmental Health Perspectives 114, no. 7 (2005): 1032–1037.
13 Ana M. Rule, S. L. Evans, and E. K. Silbergeld, ―Food Animal Transport: A Potential Source of Community Exposures to Health Hazards from Industrial Farming,‖ Journal of Infection and Public Health 1 (2008): 33–39.
14 M. E. Anderson and M. D. Sobsey, ―Detection and Occurrence of Antimicrobially Resistant E. coli in Groundwater on or Near Swine Farms in Eastern North Carolina,‖ Water Science and Technology 54, no 3: 211–218.
15 Amy R. Sapotka et al., ―Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation,‖ Environmental Health Perspectives 115, no. 7 (2001): 1041–1045.
16 ―Endorsements of the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act, revised June 14, 2006, at. See also ―Keep Antibiotics Working Urges FDA Acting Commissioner to Take Strong, Quick Action to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance Crisis,‖ April 3, 2009.
17 ACPM, January 23, 2002, ―Principles for Combating Antibiotic Resistance,‖ Policy Resolution # 05-02(A).
18 AMA, 2001, ―Antimicrobial Use and Resistance,‖ Resolution 508.
19 APHA, January 1, 1999, ―Addressing the Problem of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and the Need for Surveillance,‖ Policy No. 9908.
20 CSTE/NASPHV, 1999, ―Discontinuation of antimicrobials used to promote growth of food animals if they are used in or select for cross resistance to antimicrobials used in human therapy,‖ Position Statement 1999-ID 7.
21 IDSA PAMTA endorsement letter to Sen. Kennedy, June 12, 2007.
22 WHO, 2000, WHO Global Principles for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals Intended for Food, Geneva.